A Loan is a financial transaction in which one party (the lender) agrees to give another party (the borrower) a certain amount of money with the expectation of total repayment. The specific terms of a loan are often spelled out in the form of a promissory note or other contract. The lender can ask for interest payments in addition to the original amount of the loan (principal). The borrower must agree to the repayment terms, including the amount owed, interest rate and due dates. Some lenders can also assign financial penalties for missed or late payments.